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The motif package implements and extends ideas of the pattern-based spatial analysis in R. It describes spatial patterns of categorical raster data for any defined regular and irregular areas. Patterns are represented quantitatively using built-in signatures based on co-occurrence matrices but also allows for any user-defined functions. It enables spatial analysis such as search, change detection, and clustering to be performed on spatial patterns.


You can install the released version of motif from CRAN with:


And the development version from GitHub with:

# install.packages("remotes")


See the package’s vignettes:

  1. Introduction to the motif package
  2. Types of spatial patterns’ signatures
  3. Spatial patterns’ search
  4. Spatial patterns’ comparision
  5. Spatial patterns’ clustering
  6. Extracting the proportion of different classes in many regular local landscapes


Contributions to this package are welcome. The preferred method of contribution is through a GitHub pull request. Feel free to contact us by creating an issue.


To cite the motif package in publications, please use this paper:

Nowosad, J. Motif: an open-source R tool for pattern-based spatial analysis. Landscape Ecol (2021).

LaTeX/BibTeX version can be obtained with: