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It enables detailed interpretation of complex classification and regression models through Shapley analysis including data-driven characterization of subgroups of individuals. Furthermore, it facilitates multi-measure model evaluation, model fairness, and decision curve analysis. Additionally, it offers enhanced visualizations with interactive elements. Find out how to use the package by checking out the package tutorials.


You can install the released version of the package from CRAN:


And the development version from GitHub:

# install.packages("devtools")


Here is a short example on how to use the package. See articles for more examples.

# Load necessary packages

# Set seed for reproducibility
seed <- 246

# load necessary packages

# Load BreastCancer dataset
utils::data("BreastCancer", package = "mlbench")

# Specify target column and positive class
target_col <- "Class"
positive_class <- "malignant"

# Extract relevant columns from dataset
mydata <- BreastCancer[, -1]
mydata <- na.omit(mydata)

# Generate random 'sex' and 'age' columns
sex <- sample(c("Male", "Female"), size = nrow(mydata), replace = TRUE)
mydata$age <- as.numeric(sample(seq(18, 60), size = nrow(mydata), replace = TRUE))
mydata$sex <- factor(sex, levels = c("Male", "Female"), labels = c(1, 0))

# Create a classification task
maintask <- mlr3::TaskClassif$new(
  id = "my_classification_task",
  backend = mydata,
  target = target_col,
  positive = positive_class

# Split the dataset for training
splits <- mlr3::partition(maintask)

# Create a ranger learner for classification
mylrn <- mlr3::lrn("classif.ranger", predict_type = "prob")

# Train the learner on the training set
mylrn$train(maintask, splits$train)

# Generate SHAP values and plot
SHAP_output <- eSHAP_plot(
  task = maintask,
  trained_model = mylrn,
  splits = splits,
  sample.size = 30,
  seed = seed,
  subset = 0.8

shap_Mean_wide <- SHAP_output[[2]]

shap_Mean_long <- SHAP_output[[3]]

# Generate SHAP clusters and plot
SHAP_plot_clusters <- SHAPclust(
  task = maintask,
  trained_model = mylrn,
  splits = splits,
  shap_Mean_wide = shap_Mean_wide,
  shap_Mean_long = shap_Mean_long,
  num_of_clusters = 3,
  seed = seed,
  subset = 0.8

# Please note that the colors on the legend on SHAP cluster plot is not the same as in the SHAP summary plot, but the markers are the same.
# The markers indicate prediction correctness not the colors (so the colors could be manually changed to black/white on the legend when reporting)



If you use this package in your research, please consider citing it:

Zargari Marandi, Ramtin. “ExplaineR: an R package to explain machine learning models.” Bioinformatics Advances 4, no. 1 (2024): vbae049.doi:10.1093/bioadv/vbae049


If you want to contribute to the development of this package, please read CONTRIBUTING.md for guidelines.


If you encounter any issues or have suggestions, please open an issue.


This package is released under the MIT License.


Zargari Marandi R, Leung P, Sigera C, Murray DD, Weeratunga P, Fernando D, Rodrigo C, Rajapakse S, MacPherson CR, (2023). Development of a machine learning model for early prediction of plasma leakage in suspected dengue patients. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 17(3): e0010758. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0010758

Lang M, Binder M, Richter J, Schratz P, Pfisterer F, Coors S, Au Q, Casalicchio G, Kotthoff L, Bischl B, (2019). mlr3: A modern object-oriented machine learning framework in R. Journal of Open Source Software. doi:10.21105/joss.01903

Molnar C, Bischl B, Casalicchio G, (2018). iml: An R package for Interpretable Machine Learning.JOSS, 3(26), 786. doi:10.21105/joss.00786

Lundberg SM and Lee SI, (2017). A unified approach to interpreting model predictions. Advances in neural information processing systems.arXiv:1705.07874

Ludvig Renbo Olsen and Hugh Benjamin Zachariae, (2022). cvms: Cross-Validation for Model Selection. R package version 1.3.4. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=cvms

R Core Team (2021). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https://www.R-project.org/.


Many thanks to my colleagues at CHIP/PERSIMUNE to support this work by their feedback. In addition, thanks to the CRAN team as well as the authors and maintainers of all the utilized packages for their dedication to advancing the R ecosystem.


This work was supported by the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF126).